What is diabetes?
In simple term rise or fall in your body blood sugar is termed as diabetes. Our body blood sugar is controlled by insulin which is secreted by the pancreas. The simple work of insulin is to control the sugar level in the blood, when we eat something pancreas released the insulin to normalized the elevated level of glucose.
Glucose is a type of sugar exits in food which is essential to provide energy for the functioning of our body cells.
Insulin is one type of hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreas which regulates the level of glucose in the blood by entering the extra glucose in body cells.
In normal conditions, the insulin production and glucose absorption in the cell are in a tightly controlled range. But in person with diabetes, the insulin is either not produced or insufficient as per body needs, or unable to use properly. Due to these three factors, blood glucose is increased in the body.
Effects of diabetes
- Increased blood glucose can damage parts of the cardiovascular system.
- Increased blood glucose decreases the elasticity of blood vessels due to which supply of blood and oxygen is decreased.
- Increased blood glucose also increases the risk of high blood pressure and damage to large.
- Increased the chances of stroke, heart attack.
- Peripheral arterial disease
- Damage your eyesight, kidneys, and nervous system
- Affects the ability of the body to heal Wounds and infections
- Nerve damage, especially the legs, feet, and toes also the arms, hands, and fingers due to poor circulation of blood.
- Diabetes is one of the main reason behind kidney disease
- Digestion is common the problem in diabetes patients.
- Damaged nervous system effect on sexual function such as erectile dysfunction
- Diabetes can affect sperm quality and increased risk of infertility in man and menstrual irregularities in women.
- If wounds develop on a body of diabetes person resulting in the need for an amputation
- Foot sores are common the problem in diabetes patients.
- The body starts to break down fat for energy, which releases ketones and the high levels of ketones make the blood too acidic
- Loss of consciousness, confusion, and coma
- Increased urine problem causes dehydration
- Increased LDL cholesterol (bad) and lower HDL cholesterol (good)
- Increase the levels of triglycerides in the blood
- Tends to low physical activity and excess weight
Early signs of diabetes
- Elevated blood sugar levels,
- Dry mouth,
- Glucose is loss through the urine which leads to dehydration.
- The dehydration increased thirst and water consumption.
- Uncertain weight loss.
- Nausea and vomiting can also, occur in patients.
- Fluctuations in vision.
- tingling in the feet
- yeast infections generally in women
- Effect on sexual desire due to erectile dysfunction in man
- Increased hunger
- Slow-healing wounds, cuts, or sores
- Skin problems
Types of Diabetes:
1) Type 1 diabetes:
The beta cells of the pancreas which produces insulin are attacked and destroys by the immune system. This is predicted that certain viral infections or environmental toxins may be responsible to produce such abnormal antibody by immune system.
2) Type 2 diabetes
In type 2 diabetes, is due to relatively inadequate insulin for their body’s needs but the patients can still produce insulin
This is the initial stage when your blood sugar is high but it’s not enough for a diagnosis.
4) Gestational diabetes:
Insulin-blocking hormones are produced by the placenta during pregnancy due to which blood sugar increases and cause Gestational diabetes. Generally, this type of diabetes is temporary during pregnancy
Causes of diabetes:
Family history is the main cause for type 1 diabetes, also certain viral infections or environmental toxins and infections or diseases of the pancreas.
Overweight, Sedentary lifestyle, stress, High blood pressure, high triglycerides, and low cholesterol (HDL), Impaired glucose tolerance, Increasing age, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Insulin resistance is some risk factors for type 2 diabetes and prediabetes,
Diagnosis of diabetes:
Blood sugar level for a random test
Diabetes- more than 200mg/dl
Blood sugar level for a fasting test
Normal- below 100 mg/dl
Prediabetes- 100 to 125 mg/dl
Diabetes- more than 126mg/dl
Blood sugar level for 2 hours post-prandial
Normal- below 140 mg/dl
Prediabetes- 140 to 199 mg/dl
Diabetes- more than 200mg/dl
Simple ways to minimize the risks:
- Manage blood sugar through insulin or medication
- A daily minimum of 35 minutes the uninterrupted fast walk keeps your diabetes in your control.
- Maintain your diet with maximum fibers food such as leafy vegetables.
- Change your lifestyle, such as having a regular walk, a healthy diet, exercise.
- Generally, this is observed that the daily fluctuation in blood sugar level damages your body more than that of the high blood sugar level.
- Following the treatment the plan prescribed by the doctor.
- Remember diabetes is that type of disease which is not cured but you will manage it.
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